Wednesday, 07 March 2018

Indigenous Medicinal plants of Manipur

Young leaves of Yerum keirum are commonly served as raw or cooked vegetable known as kangsoi.Very nutritious, they can be added to salads whilst the cooked leaves can scarcely be distinguished from spring spinach.

Chickweed has a very long history of herbal use in the external treatment of any kind of itching skin condition. It has been known to soothe severe itchiness even where all other remedies have failed. In excess doses chickweed can cause diarrhoea and vomiting. It should not be used medicinally by pregnant women.

Fadigom are used as a flavouring in salads, soups etc and the fresh leaves are probably the most widely used flavouring herb in the world. The leaves have an aromatic flavour

Coriander, like many spices, contains antioxidants, which can delay or prevent the spoilage of food seasoned with this spice. Chemicals derived from coriander leaves were found to have antibacterial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis, and this activity was found to be caused in part by these chemicals acting as nonionic surfactants.Coriander has been used as a folk medicine for the relief of anxiety and insomnia in Iran. Coriander seeds are used in traditional Indian medicine as a diuretic by boiling equal amounts of coriander seeds and cumin seeds, then cooling and consuming the resulting liquid. In holistic and traditional medicine, it is used as a carminative and as a digestive aid.Coriander has been used as a traditional treatment for diabetes.

Komprek are usually used in Salads and curry.The small leaves are quite flavorful and delicious when added to a mixture of other greens. They also add excellent flavor to quiche, sandwiches, stir-fry, pasta and stew, as well as any creamed vegetable dish or casserole.

Komprek is an herb. The whole plant is used to make medicine. Liver disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, abdominal pain, food poisoning, and other conditions. Some research suggests water dropwort might prevent liver damage.

LEIBAK KUNDO  is considered a weed, it may be eaten as a leaf vegetable. It has a slightly sour and salty taste and is eaten throughout. The stems, leaves and flower buds are all edible. Purslane may be used fresh as a salad, stir-fried, or cooked as spinach is, and because of its mucilaginous quality it also is suitable for soups and stews, fry the leaves and the stems with feta cheese, tomato, onion, garlic, oregano, and olive oil. In some place it is used in salads and in baked pastries, it is cooked as a vegetable similar to spinach.

Leibak Kundo contains more omega-3 fatty acid than any other leafy vegetable plant.Purslane are potent antioxidants and have been found to have antimutagenic properties.Use is contraindicated during pregnancy and for those with cold and weak digestion. Leibak kundo is a clinically effective treatment for oral lichen planus, and its leaves are used to treat insect or snake bites on the skin, boils, sores, pain from bee stings, bacillary dysentery, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, postpartum bleeding, and intestinal bleeding.

Young shoots, rhizomes and flower of loklei are used as traditional vegetable in curry and boiled chutney like Eromba and Ametpa. In local treatment, extract of rhizomes is given in bronchitis while decoction of leaves or rhizomes is used for gargling in tonsillitis or simply as a mouth wash to avoid bad breathe.

Lomba is a very common herb, the strongly aromatic leaves are used as a flavouring in cooked foods and Chutney known as Eromba and ametpa.

Sage has a very long history of effective medicinal use and is an important domestic herbal remedy for disorders of the digestive system. Its antiseptic qualities make it an effective gargle for the mouth where it can heal sore throats, ulcers etc. The leaves applied to an aching tooth will often relieve the pain. The whole herb is antihydrotic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cholagogue, galactofuge, stimulant, tonic and vasodilator. Sage is also used internally in the treatment of excessive lactation, night sweats, excessive salivation (as in Parkinson's disease), profuse perspiration (as in TB), anxiety, depression, female sterility and menopausal problems. This remedy should not be prescribed to pregnant women or to people who have epileptic fits.

Maroi nakuppi is commonly used as spice or condiments in dishes and soups. It also holds as a good item in various chutney preparation locally known as Eromba, Singju and Ametpa. People have special food habit of this herb in preparation of Pakora, Bora and Maroi Thongba. Nakuppi is also conventionally used as folk medicine in the treatment of fungal or bacterial infection on head as “Samjabi” by application of its crushed juice until it is cured.

Mayangton is a versatile herb that may be used in an abundant variety of foods. It is excellent in tomato-based dishes, spinach, and all types of squash. It is great in soup but don't add it until the last thirty minutes of cooking. It can also be used in cream cheese for sandwiches, dips, and pasta dishes. Mayangton is the main ingredient in pesto.

Mayangton is also an herbal remedy for diseases related to the brain, heart, lungs, bladder, and kidneys. It is also mixed with borage to make a tea that is used to heighten vitality. Dried leaves are used in a snuff as a remedy for colds. An infusion of lemon-scented basil was used by the Hindus to ease the symptoms of diabetes. The leaves of the hairy basil have been used for their anti-asthmatic properties. While the leaves have been widely used, it is not well known that the seeds have been used as both a laxative and for the treatment of diarrhea.

Mithi Seed - cooked or sprouted and eaten raw. It has quite a strong spicy flavour, not unlike lovage or celery. When ground into a powder, the seed is a principal ingredient of curries and mango chutney, it is also used in pickles and spice mixes,as a flavoring in bread etc. The seed is usually lightly roasted before use in order to reduce the bitterness.

Arthritis has a low incidence rate in India where a lot of Mithi is consumed. Drinking 1 cup of fenugreek tea per day, made from the leaves, is said to relieve the discomfort of arthritis.Fenugreek is much used in herbal medicine. It has a wide range of medicinal applications. The seeds are very nourishing and are given to convalescents and to encourage weight gain, especially in anorexia nervosa. The seeds should not be prescribed medicinally for pregnant women since they can induce uterine contractions. Research has shown that the seeds can inhibit cancer of the liver, lower blood cholesterol levels and also have an antidiabetic effect. The seed and leaves are anticholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, carminative, demulcent, deobstruent, emollient, expectorant, febrifuge, galactogogue, hypoglycaemic, laxative, parasiticide, restorative and uterine tonic.

Nungsihidak is usually preferred over dried mint when storage of the mint is not a problem. The leaves have a pleasant warm, fresh, aromatic, sweet flavor with a cool aftertaste. The leaves are used in teas, beverages, jellies, syrups, candies, and ice creams. Mint is used on lamb dishes, sauce and mint jelly, kanghou etc... Nungsihidak oils are extensively used as flavorings in breath fresheners, drinks, antiseptic mouth rinses, toothpaste, chewing gum, desserts, and candies. The substances that give the mints their characteristic aromas and flavors are menthol and pulegone.

Nungsihidak plant is antibacterial, antifibrile. It yields an essential oil and menthol which exert, through their rapid evaporation, slightly anaesthetic, and anodyne local effect. It is effective in headache, rhinitis, cough sore throat, colic, prurigo and vomiting. Menthol obtained from this is used in balms. It is also used as flavoring agent in culinary preparations. It is well known as a cardiac tonic in pharmaceutical preparations. It is a good blood cleanser. Due to it is antiseptic and anti-bacterial property, it can be used in swollen gums, mouthwash or mouth ulcers and toothache.

Peruk is use in making curry like Peruk Kangshu, Champhut etc, Peruk leaf is used for drink or can be eaten in raw form. Peruk is a mild adaptogen, is mildly antibacterial, antiviral, anti- inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, anxiolytic, nervine and vulnerary, and can act as a cerebral tonic, a circulatory stimulant, and a diuretic. It is useful in the treatment of anxiety, and may be a promising anxiolytic agent in the future, diabetic microangiopathy, edema, venous hypertension, and venous insufficiency. The isolated steroids from the plant also have been used to treat leprosy.

Young shoots and leaves of tokningkhok - raw or cooked as a pot- herb. In the spring and summer it has a very acceptable flavour, but by autumn a distinct bitterness has crept in. Root - cooked.

The whole plant is antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antimicrbial, antiphlogistic, antiviral, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, laxative and ophthalmic. A decoction is used internally in the treatment of many ailments including cancer, coughs, dysentery, enteritis and fever. Its use is said to strengthen the immune system. Externally, it is used in the treatment of snake bites and skin disorders. The leaves and stems are harvested during the growing season and used fresh in decoctions. The leaf juice is antidote and astringent.The rhizomes yield a sterol, resembling sitosterol, which stimulates the secretion of antibiotic substances from a gram-positive spore-forming bacillus.

The tender leaves and shoots are commonly served as vegetable in curry and boiled or fresh chutney. The preparation like kansoi, Eromba and Singju are worth mentioning in local food habit. There are also folk medicinal uses of this herb. The fresh juice acts as cicatrizonts; while the seeds as toni, purgative and emetic. In local treatment decoction of leaves and shoots is served as a stimulating wash for stomach ulcers.

The tender leaves and shoots of Yendang are commonly used as vegetables as local delicacies in fresh or boiled chutney known as Shingju, Kangsu, Kangmet, Ametpa and Eromba.

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